Automated Weather Data Network

The Automated Weather Data Network (AWDN) represents a longstanding partnership among states in and around the High Plains Region with the purpose of gathering observational data and providing this information to stakeholders in agriculture and related fields. The AWDN provides valuable observation data, serving clients around the world. Daily, hourly, and sub-hourly data provided by the AWDN fill in major gaps between other networks, such as the Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) and the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS).

Locations

With over 350 stations spanning a 9 state area, there are many options to choose from for your mesonet data needs. The map below shows an overview of both open and closed locations. The links below this map will display more detailed state maps, which also include the station names. For a detailed listing of the stations, along with the station IDs and coordinates, please click on the List of Active/Inactive Stations button.

Maps by State

Regional Partnerships

The AWDN is a cooperative effort, which is made possible by partnerships with six state-run mesonet programs across the High Plains region. The primary function of the AWDN is to aggregate and quality control the data from these discrete networks in order to create regional products that can then be used for various sectors, such as agriculture and water resources. Current and/or archived observations from over 350 stations are available across the nine states of Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Wyoming. You can learn more about each participating network by clicking on the state names below


The Colorado Agricultural Meteorological Network (CoAgMET) is managed by the Colorado Climate Center at Colorado State University. It was originally started in the early 1990s through a collaboration between the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University Extension. Over time, the network has grown to over 80 stations located across the state. Along with access to raw data, CoAgMET provides daily and monthly statistics, maps, and summaries. A selection of tools include:
  • Crop Water Use (ET)
  • Growing Degree Day Plots
  • Text Message Service
  • Web Services
  • Wind Summaries
Visit CoAgMet
Visit Colorado Climate Center

The ISU Soil Moisture Network is managed by Iowa State University (ISU). The network began in the 1980s as the ISU Ag Climate Network and was transitioned to its current configuration of stations and equipment in 2013 and 2014. The network now consists of over 20 stations, located across the state. Numerous tools are available through the Iowa Environmental Mesonet (IEM) page, which features the ISU Soil Moisture Network data, including:
  • Growing Season Maps
  • Monthly Summaries
  • Real-time and Historical Data Maps
  • Time Series Plots
  • Web Services
Visit ISU Soil Moisture Network
Visit IEM

The Kansas Mesonet is managed by the Kansas State Weather Data Library at Kansas State University. The network was started in the 1980s with stations at K-State Research & Extension facilities across the state. Over time, the network has grown to over 60 stations and now includes collaborations with the Kansas Water Office, Big Bend Groundwater Management District, and the USDA Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN). A number of tools are available from the Kansas Mesonet, including:
  • Animal Comfort Index
  • Freeze Monitor
  • Heat Index and Wind Chill
  • Soil Moisture
  • Temperature Inversions
Visit Kansas Mesonet
Visit Kansas Weather Data Library

The Nebraska Mesonet is managed by the Nebraska State Climate Office at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The network was established in the early 1980s by the High Plains Regional Climate Center, as one of the first automated weather networks in the country. Since taking over in 2016, the Nebraska State Climate Office has grown the network to include nearly 70 stations across the state. Tools available from the Nebraska Mesonet include:
  • Interactive Station Maps
  • Current Conditions
  • Real-time and Daily Maps
Visit Nebraska Mesonet
Visit Nebraska State Climate Office

The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) is managed by the NDAWN Center at North Dakota State University. The network was established in the late 1980s with a grant from the HPRCC. Since that time, NDAWN has grown to be one of the largest networks in the region, with over 90 stations across North Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana. NDAWN provides a wide range of tools, including:
  • Deep Soil Temperature Measurements
  • Numerous Agricultural Tools (Crop and Insect GDD, Crop Water Use, etc.)
  • Soil Moisture
  • Temperature Inversion Data
  • Wind Chill
Visit NDAWN

The Wyoming Agricultural Climate Network (WACNet) is managed by the Wyoming State Engineer’s Office. Starting in the late 2000s, WACNet is one of the younger mesonets in the region. The network currently consists of 20 automated weather stations, and data from the network flow to the Water Resources Data System at the University of Wyoming for quality control and housing. Some tools that are available from the WACNet include:
  • Data Tables
  • Maps and Graphs
  • Soil Moisture
  • Soil Temperature
  • Winter Precipitation (via heated rain gauges)
Visit WACNet
Visit Water Resources Data System & State Climate Office

Instrumentation

This graphic shows an example mesonet station configuration. Please note that station configurations can vary from state to state, or even within the same mesonet, especially as stations are upgraded. For information about a specific station, please contact the appropriate state mesonet program (see the Partners tab for more information).

Products

Data Access via Classic Online Services

Classic Online Services provides access to the entire AWDN dataset, which includes daily and hourly measurements of air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, solar radiation, and soil temperature. Many calculated variables are also available, such as evapotranspiration and growing degree days.

Within Classic Online, several report options exist, as well as the ability to set up an “autopilot” that will transfer data to you via email or FTP on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. Report options are as follows:

Available for no charge:
  • Raw Data Report: Access quality controlled daily and hourly data from any of the 350+ AWDN stations across the region with the Raw Data Report option.
Fee-based services:
  • Ag Data Report: Access a summary of daily conditions that are of particular importance to agriculture with the Ag Data Report.
  • Single Variable Report: Access summary tables for specific variables with the Single Variable Report.
  • Crop Dependent Report: Access crop-specific evapotranspiration and growing degree days with the Crop Dependent Report. Available crops include alfalfa, corn, dry bean, grass, potato, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, and wheat.
  • Insect Report: Access insect-specific growing degree day information with the Insect Report. Available insects include alfalfa weevil, black cutworm, European corn borer, seedcorn maggot, and stalk borer.
  • State Summary Report: Access state and divisional summary tables with the State Summary Report.
If sub-hourly data or other variables are required, such as soil moisture, please contact the appropriate state mesonet for more information.

 

Quality Control and Estimation Techniques

All incoming AWDN data are quality controlled using a two-step process that includes both automated and manual techniques. The quality control process not only helps to identify spurious values, but also helps to identify potential issues with the equipment. For instance, a station that is consistently recording identical hourly wind measurements may be iced over, or a station that suddenly seems to be missing precipitation events may have a clogged rain gauge.

When data are flagged as failing QC or are completely missing, these values are estimated using spatial and statistical methods in order to create a serially complete dataset. Serially complete datasets are required for a number of purposes, including climatological, agricultural, and watershed modeling. Users can easily identify estimated values within Classic Online, as each value has an appended “flag” that corresponds to a particular estimation technique. Flags are simply letters that appear at the end of the data value. Examples of data with flags include the letters E, R, and e, which are described below.

Inverse Distance Weighting

Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) is a method of estimation that takes into account the distance a station is from a target station. The inverse of this distance is taken and multiplied by the variable’s value, to get an estimate for the station. This scheme uses the five closest stations surrounding the station in question to make the estimate. If all requirements are met, the value is replaced and is marked with an “E” flag. IDW is primarily used to fill missing observations in a station’s record.

Spatial Regression Test

The Spatial Regression Test (SRT) is a statistical model used to make estimates for mesonet data. This scheme looks at the observations of the five closest stations and uses data from all stations for a 24-day period to create a linear regression model. A value is then estimated for the station in question using the linear regression model. The value replaces the existing value and is marked with an “R” flag. The model is also used to create a confidence interval which is used to determine validity of a value.

Persistence

In rare instances when there is no data for nearby stations and the IDW or SRT methods cannot be used, data are estimated based on persistence. When persistence is used, the value from the previous day or hour replaces the existing value and that value is then marked with an “e” flag.

References

Evapotranspiration (ET) Equation Used for AWDN Products

Crop Coefficients, Phenology, and Growing Degree Day Accumulation

                            
Crop Coefficients for: Alfalfa
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 77.0 F
Lower Limit = 40.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Stage 1		0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
Stage 2		0.41  100.0   100.0   100.0
Stage 3		0.54  250.0   250.0   250.0
Stage 4		0.66  300.0   300.0   300.0
Maturity	0.85  400.0   400.0   400.0
Full Cov	1.00  700.0   700.0   700.0
Full Cov	1.00 4600.0  4900.0  5200.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Corn
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 86.0 F
Lower Limit = 50.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
2leaves	  0 	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
4leaves	  1	0.18  240.0   240.0   240.0
6leaves	  1	0.35  360.0   360.0   360.0
8leaves	  2	0.51  480.0   480.0   480.0
10leaves  2	0.69  600.0   600.0   600.0
12leaves  3	0.88  720.0   720.0   720.0
14leaves  3	1.01  840.0   840.0   840.0
16leaves  4	1.10  960.0   960.0   960.0
Silks---HMA	1.10 1143.6  1200.0  1272.5
Blister   6	1.10 1327.2  1440.0  1585.0
Dough     7	1.10 1510.9  1680.0  1897.4
begDent   8	1.10 1694.5  1920.0  2209.9
fullDent  9	0.98 1878.1  2160.0  2522.4
BlackLay 10	0.60 2061.7  2400.0  2834.9
Full Mat 11	0.10 2100.0  2450.0  2900.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Dry beans
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 86.0 F
Lower Limit = 50.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Emerg-10%	0.06	0.0	0.0	0.0
Cover10-50	0.06  191.0   191.0   191.0
Cover50-80	0.48  599.0   599.0   599.0
Cover80-Fu	0.81  823.0   823.0   823.0
Full Cover	1.00 1020.0  1020.0  1020.0
Pod Elong	1.00 1190.3  1234.0  1277.6
Pod Fill	0.83 1345.1  1428.4  1511.8
Dry Down	0.59 1514.6  1641.4  1768.2
Senescense	0.30 1685.7  1856.4  2027.1
Mature		0.09 1800.0  2000.0  2200.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Grass
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 77.0 F
Lower Limit = 40.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Green-up	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
Regrowth	1.00  125.0   125.0   125.0
Nr Full Co	1.00 1077.5  1140.0  1202.5
Full Cover	1.00 2447.7  2600.0  2752.3
Dormant		0.60 4700.0  5000.0  5300.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Potato
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 97.0 F
Lower Limit = 45.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Emergence	0.12	0.0	0.0	0.0
Early Veg	0.15  228.0   228.0   228.0
Vegetative	0.34  497.0   497.0   497.0
Blossom		0.61  800.0   800.0   800.0
Early Tube	0.87 1090.7  1125.6  1160.5
Tuberizati	1.05 1398.9  1470.8  1542.7
Tuber bulk	0.98 1856.0  1982.8  2109.5
Tuber bulk	0.70 2302.6  2482.9  2663.3
Senescence	0.35 2706.3  2935.1  3163.8
Senescence	0.12 3044.3  3313.6  3582.9
Mature		0.12 3300.0  3600.0  3900.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Sorghum
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 86.0 F
Lower Limit = 50.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Emergence	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
3 leaves	0.15  200.0   200.0   200.0
5 leaves	0.31  484.0   484.0   484.0
8lv-GrPtdi	0.56  748.0   748.0   748.0
Final leaf	0.87  990.0   990.0   990.0
Boot		1.10 1232.0  1232.0  1232.0
Half-bloom	1.10 1466.8  1528.0  1589.2
Soft dough	1.10 1616.0  1716.0  1816.0
Hard dough	0.84 1808.0  1958.0  2108.0
Mature		0.10 2000.0  2200.0  2400.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Soybean
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 86.0 F
Lower Limit = 50.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Cotyledon	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
FirstNode	0.20  236.0   236.0   236.0
SecondNode	0.40  378.0   378.0   378.0
ThirdNode	0.60  566.0   566.0   566.0
BegBloom	0.90  779.0   779.0   779.0
FullBloom	1.00  968.0   968.0   968.0
Beg Pod		1.10 1156.0  1156.0  1156.0
Full Pod	1.10 1288.5  1335.6  1382.7
Beg Seed	1.10 1355.1  1425.8  1496.6
Full Seed	1.10 1520.5  1650.1  1779.7
Beg Mature	0.90 1702.1  1896.2  2090.3
Full Matur	0.20 1851.4  2098.6  2345.7
Mature		0.10 2000.0  2300.0  2600.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Sugar beets
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 86.0 F
Lower Limit = 50.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Emergence	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
Cover20-30	0.14  247.0   247.0   247.0
Cover30-50	0.21  438.0   438.0   438.0
Cover50-70	0.34  637.0   637.0   637.0
Cover70-80	0.48  846.0   846.0   846.0
Cover80-90	0.60 1070.0  1070.0  1070.0
Cover90-Fu	0.73 1267.0  1267.0  1267.0
Full Cover	0.83 1486.0  1486.0  1486.0
Max LAI		0.91 1619.4  1668.6  1717.8
Root Stg	0.91 2031.8  2232.9  2434.1
After Fros	0.90 2300.0  2600.0  2900.0
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Sunflower
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 99.0 F
Lower Limit = 50.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Early veg.	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
Bud format	1.00  680.0   680.0   680.0
Flower ini	1.10  800.0   800.0   800.0
50% Disk F	1.15 1035.7  1100.0  1164.3
Early Seed	1.15 1350.0  1500.0  1650.0
Late Seed	1.15 1664.3  1900.0  2135.7
Mature		0.20 1900.0  2200.0  2500.0 
                            
                            
Crop Coefficients for: Wheat
Temperature Limits for Growing Degree Day Estimation
Upper Limit = 77.0 F
Lower Limit = 40.0 F

Coefficient and GDD accumulation at the beginning 
of each growth stage for various maturity groups:

STAGE	    	  KC
Emergence	0.10	0.0	0.0	0.0
Vis. Crown	0.50  115.0   115.0   115.0
Leaf Elong	0.90  230.0   230.0   230.0
Jointing	1.03  518.0   518.0   518.0
Boot		1.10  673.0   673.0   673.0
Heading		1.10  792.3   817.0   836.7
Flowering	1.10  872.7   914.0   947.0
Grain Fill	1.10 1068.3  1150.0  1215.4
Stiff Doug	1.00 1282.9  1409.0  1509.9
Ripening	0.50 1497.5  1668.0  1804.4
Mature		0.10 1640.0  1840.0  2000.0